For the first time an atmosphere has been detected on a planet 1.6 times the mass of Earth and 1.4 times the radius. The planet GJ 1132b orbits a red-dwarf star 39 light-years away and is classified as a super-Earth.  More on secondearth.eu

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How science really works or why exoplanets were completely unknown before 1995, now less than 25 years ago.

An explosion of our knowledge of the universe changed our view to the universe completely: Nearly 4000  extrasolar planets (1854 in dec. 2014 and already 3863 in oct. 2018) detected in extremely short time. The first 2000 in less than 20 years and the next 2000 in less than 4 years!

Nearly 4000 exoplanets — planets orbiting other stars — have been detected since the first exoplanet was discovered in 1995 with potentially enormous philosophical implications[**]. Without any exageration probably the biggest scientific discovery ever.

 

A first cosmic census (2011) estimates at least 50 billion (exo-)planets in our galaxy, the Milky Way. And this in contrast to the fact that just 25 years ago astronomers and phycisists told us we're the only planetary system in the whole universe. SETI 1995: "in fact many authorities felt our(s)" (...planetary system...) "might be unique".

 

200 years astronomers have searched in vain the night sky for planets around other stars...

And then astronomers suddenly in 1995 started searching for wobbling stars. Read why...

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

Some pictures of the  Sun

 

 


 

Does the sun wobble?

 


 

New facts since 2002

 

 


 

 

Spectroscopic detection of exoplanet systems

 


 

Wobbling stars and Einstein

 

 


 

 

 Earthquake and volcanic eruption prediction

 

 


 

 

Global warming

 


 

History of this site

Geschichte dieser Site(deutsch)

 


 

 

General links

 


 

 

Some exoplanet news

 

 


 

 

Some unrelated notes

 


 

 

Why an understanding

of the sun is so important

 


 

 

History of exoplanet discovery

 

 


 

 

When was it discovered?

 


 

Old website (2002-2005) with further explanations  

(This link is inactive, because nearly all links on this page are invalid, point to nowhere. Search engine degrade such pages.)

 

 


 

Conditions for life on extraterrestrial planets

 


 

It is interesting to see when the different facts that are presented on this site will get acknowledged by physics

 


 

 

SuperComputing on home PC's

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Just three citations which stand for thousands:
"Ever since the first exoplanet was discovered in the mid-1990s, we’ve had an explosion of discoveries, revealing hundreds of strange worlds orbiting faraway stars." (The planetary society).

 

"No one would have predicted 10 years ago that we'd have any extrasolar planets. Even though we have now found more than 100 of them, these are still the early days in planet hunting." (planet hunter Geoffrey Marcy 2003)

 

"Astronomers have looked for planets around other stars for over 50 years, with little success. But in the mid-1990's that changed, and astronomers have been surprised ever since. " (http://www.astro.psu.edu/users/caryl/a10/lec21_2d.html)
 

Planets outside our solar system far out in the universe is the hottest topic of astronomers and astrophysics these days. On these pages you can read why they were detected and why they were detected so late, now only 20 years back ( in 1995 ). And now we have already  nearly 4000 discoveries...

Further you can read why this disproves three of the main today used hypothesis in modern astrophysics and astronomy. Not by doubtfull and unprovable claims but by computer programs which are repeatable and verifiable by everyone. Data for these computer programs is from highly trustable federal instances (US and european)  and accessible to everyone. If this would concern only astronomy and astrophysics one could say: 'if one or the other star gets classified wrong is of no concern to me'. No, the consequences out of these wrong hypothesis  concern everyone, even more, human lives depend on and are endangered by these wrong hypothesis. Not to speak of the severe damage that the whole science experiences, starting by geology over biology over archaeology and and and....

 

 
When I studied physics/electrical engeneering in the 60th of the last century it was undisputed that the central star of our solar system – the sun, while rotating around the center of the milky way - was eternally fixed in one of the focal points of the elliptical orbits of the planets Mercury to Pluto (poor old Pluto was degraded lately: it’s no more a planet, its just a planetoid by now).

According to this representation the barycenter of our solar system was thought to be inside the sun. Eccentric to the center of the sun, but inside the sun. Generations of highly intelligent mathematical geniuses had tried to describe our solar system in mathematical terms and had failed utterly on the n-body problem
..


One problem was imminent to this representation: if the sun was fixed in the focal point of the ellipsis, how could the obvious energy production in the sun be explained? One of the explanations which was thought of till  the 30ths of the last century was the energy delivered by the falling meteorites which hit the sun. In the good last the physicist community agreed 1937/1939 upon that the energy production was due to the hydrogen to helium burning and the proton-proton-reaction, the so called Bethe-Weizsäcker cycle. Here you can read some more on the  neutrinos with multiple personality. By the way: the neutrino problem is far from solved!

While at university I tried myself too to solve the problem of the n-body problem. But without the help of a computer this proved to be practically irresolvable. You can deduce the solar orbit by reducing the system to a 3 body system (Sun,Jupiter,Saturn) but nothing more. So I had to wait till the 1980th when computers (and their FPU’s) became mighty enough to run such simulations in finite time. One of my first programs on a 386 with FPU was thus a simulation of our solar system in C++. A prerequisite was to prove that the simulation stabilizes after a few turns to a stable outcome with differing starting conditions. This program evolved by and by – at first a 2d simulation, then 3d simulation, then a graphical output with possible rotation about all axes (a rudimentary OpenGl), numerical log files for all essential parameters etc.. It showed clearly and reproducible that the sun isn’t fixed in the center of gravity of our solar system but rotates itself around the barycenter of our solar system.


Now this course of the sun or orbit around the barycenter was by itself in the 1980s a sensational fact: because now it was easy to find other solar systems like ours out in space, you only had to watch out for ‘wobbling’ stars in the universe. But my intent went further: I wanted to prove that this course of the sun (or orbit around the gravitational center) was one of the main reasons for the energy produced in the sun. This would solve another big question of astronomy: the missing masses or how they are called today, the dark masses or dark matter. Because if the energy produced in the sun is due to mechanical forces and not fusion, then big stars have not to glow by themselves, they may be dark stars. Stars will in this case only shine and produce visible light if they have planets orbiting them, without planets they are much too dark to be visible even with our biggest telescopes today (only in the infrared they may be visible). But they are visible by their gravitational effects: namely as gravitational lenses.(Another problem – the missing energy or dark energy how it is called today is connected with another hypothesis – the big bang. We won’t discuss this here.)
 

The theories build around dark matter can be taken as disproven by now. Different researchers worldwide have found proves for this and at the same time strenghtening the here said. The XENON detector which should detect dark matter delivers only negative results. See also here. And here.

 


For all who are not at home in astronomy a short explanation: by observing the galaxies with the best telescopes available today, you’ll find that the galaxies turn much too fast on the outer borders for the masses visible. In other words, there must be a whole lot more masses in the center of the galaxies than those visible. And since the gravitational law is as the name implies a law and not a hypothesis, there is a big problem for physics.



Finally, after I informed in 1991 our leading German physics institutes of the orbit of the sun it was only four years later, in 1995 that the first planetary system outside our home planetary system was found by Swiss astronomers by doppler shift measurements. From there on every year more systems were found. Till today(2018) nearly 3000 (2882 in Oct.2018)! And this well understood quite in contrast to the fact that in 1991 astronomers and astro-phycisits told us that we’re the only planetary system in the whole universe! Now as you can see, this phenomenological part of my explanation was well accepted, but the energy production of the sun is still further believed to be due to self sustained atomic fusion.



We all are used to think of physics as an exact science, as its laws must be reproducible by anyone in any place at anytime. But today’s physical problems in the femto atomic world or the macro world allow only a peephole view to the underlying problems – in the case of astronomy we see the universe only from our extremely small base, the earth, and so it is no wonder that we find in physics similarly weak hypothesis as in the ‘inexact sciences’, the social sciences or in medicine. And while the "wobbling" Sun was in 1991 not accepted by scientists you find today in the web enough whole universities which claim they have found my findings at least one year before me. But to claim and to prove are different things. And the same people who didn't accept this theory in 1991  have today on their websites Java-applets which show how the central star of a planetary system “wobbles” under the gravitational forces of big planets. Since I don't want to denounce anyone,  no links here.  And they explain in long and bloomy words how today “exoplanets” are found by this method. But at the same time they underline that this is only a small extension to Keplers law, so they don’t have to explain where from they got their brilliant new knowledge.

 

In retrospect in the year 2018 the following is a chronology of the acceptance by physics that all shining stars have planets orbiting them (In parethesis you'll find the year when it was written/added to this page):

 

But it seems it won't take long till the here written is fully accepted. Now you can already hear astronomers say: 'planets are no big deal! They are commonplace! And 40 or more percent of the stars must have planets!' Others speak already of 70-80%. Read again these pages and you will know it's exactly 100 percent. May be some wobble so faint that we can't measure it, but that changes nothing on the fact that all 'shining' stars have planets.(2009)

Others tell in 2009 : "There could be one hundred billion Earth-like planets in our galaxy...". and Berkeley says in end of 2010: "Earth-Sized Alien Planets May Be Surprisingly Common" and   "25% of Sun-like stars have Earth-like planets.. (and)...there could be even more Earth-size planets"(2010)

A first cosmic census estimates in the year 2011 at least 50 billion planets in our galaxy, the Milky Way. And this in contrast to the fact that just 20 years ago astronomers and phycisists told us we're the only planetary system in the whole universe.(2011)

Evidence from observations lead now in 2013 more and more researchers to the same conclusion: "Extrapolating from Kepler's currently ongoing observations and results from other detection techniques, it looks like practically all Sun-like stars have planets".(2013)

 

And you can already hear: 'Nobody knows how brown dwarfs form'. Which is only a very small step away from: 'Nobody knows how stars form'. If you follow todays literature which states:  'Brown dwarfs form like stars'(The Brown Dwarf — Exoplanet Connection, J. W. Mason,Springer 2008) this is already today a synonyme. Even clearer: " We have (currently) no definition of what a planet is". Which is nothing else than the negative expression of: "We have currently no definition what a star is" .

By scrutinizing the planets found so far astronomers more and more realize  that many of the planets found have masses which classify them according to todays definition as stars, disproving thereby todays theories on stars (and proving everything written on these pages thereby). And much to the surprise of astronomers many are orbiting in the opposite direction to the rotation of their host star, thereby disproving one of the central hypotheses of todays astro-physics. Read more..

 

After 20 years now (!) these papers (A&A,Jan 2011) are first proves of the calculations and descriptions on this site: "The barycentric motion of exoplanet host stars: tests of solar spin-orbit coupling"  or this pdf:  "Does a Spin–Orbit Coupling Between the Sun and the Jovian Planets Govern the Solar Cycle?" (more under new facts and links). And everyday new findings prove the main statement of this site.

 

In the end of the year 2018 now the main statement of this site is no more questioned by science, that all shining stars have planets orbiting them. Inversely this means that there must be countless dark stars, which would explain the biggest question of todays physics and astronomy: Where are the missing masses, what is dark matter? But to accept this, todays physic would have to admit that the actual astro-physics is completely wrong, assumes a totally wrong process of energy production in stars (atomic fusion, on which the whole astro-physics building is constructed). And it seems physics is not able or willing to do this. Because in this case the whole astro-physics building would collapse, Big Bang, classification of stars, supernovae and black holes included.

What a happy coincidence is it  that just now a mission is planned which will be able to find for the first time dark (only visible in the infrared) stars! The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is sheduled to start in 2021 with a Ariane rocket.

Now since dark stars don't fit into the picture of 'atomic fusion stars' a new form of energy production for dark stars had to be found: "an unusual power source". These stars are "powered by the heat from Dark Matter annihilation, rather than by fusion". This is typical for this strange kind of physics, no one knows what dark matter is, of what it consists, what kind of laws apply, how it interacts  (if it interacts at all), in essence absolutely nothing is known about dark matter, but its annihilation produces power. It is even known that "Although dark matter constitutes only ~< 0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years".

Then there is the Parker Solar Probe, which started in Aug. 2018 to study the solar corona. Parker Solar Probe will get very close to the sun — within 6.16 million kilometers.  The solar corona's outer boundary reaches about 8 million kilometers into space. These pages were the first to ask, how can a atomic fusion reactor deep within the sun heat the solar corona through a rather cold solar surface? The sun's surface has a temperature of just 6000 Kelvin, but the corona has a temperature of over 1 million Kelvin, which is till today a big mystery for physics. Parker shell now help to clarify some of the questions which were first raised on these pages. Read more here...

But there are a lot more open questions what concerns the sun. ESA too plans a very tight visit of the sun (in 2020) with its Solar Orbiter Mission. These are some of the questions ESA's Solar Orbiter shell help to answer:

  • What drives the solar wind and where does the coronal magnetic field originate from?
  • How do solar transients drive heliospheric variability?
  • How do solar eruptions produce energetic particle radiation that fills the heliosphere?
  • How does the solar dynamo work and drive connections between the Sun and the heliosphere? 

 

 

 

Copyright © R,Cooper-Bitsch 2006,2009,2010,2018

 
 

 

**) The US-National Research Council : "The discovery of life on another planet is potentially one of the most important scientific advances of this century, let alone this decade, and it would have enormous philosophical implications."

 


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